*ADB-AIIB-DFID PROJECT IN PAKISTAN
- Literature review
ADB Institutional and Project Documents
Published researches on indigenous peoples and women’s land right
News coverage– online and video uploads
- Email correspondence with CSOs in Pakistan
Corridor of Impact
Entire M4 highway is a 240 km road which will construct:
15 interchanges, 23 flyovers/underpasses, 11 bridges, 19 underpasses, 191 pipe culverts , 55 WCC boxes and gas culverts .
M4 Shorkot-Khanewal (Section 3 of M4)
Two bridges will be constructed across 2 main surface water bodies which irrigates agri lands: River Ravi and Sadhnai Canal
Displacement of 3,429 households from the use of 1,616.7 acres of land of which 86 % is privately-owned agricultural land
Will require the cutting of 91,661 trees
Demographic profile and “missing people”
Covers 35 villages , no roads
31 villages completed acquisi.ons / 4 villages are being processed under Land Acquisi.on Act of 1894
Displacing 3,429 households
Shorkot: Average household size is 6.9 Khanewal: Average household size is 7 Nuclear family (49%) , Joint (51%)
Women: men popula.on ratio is at 108:100
70.2 percent uses wood, agri wastes for fuel source
Presence of castes (Sayyed, Naul, Supra, Sheikh, Haraj, Gill, Sanghara, Bandash, Mughal, Jai, Arain, Malik, Rajput, Sheikh )
Presence of ethnic minori.es such as Sialkot, Amratsar, Gurdaspur, Gujranwala, Gujra which should have triggered IP SP
No children counted under vulnerable groups
Demographic profile and “missing people”
Displaced person – any person whose land, asset/infrastructure , source of income or access to resources/workplace is likely to be affected is likely to be affected by the project’s opera.ons.In the COI, these are mostly land owners, business operators and owners of assets
However, there is huge gap in head count.
ADB says 3,429 households or 6,036 displaced persons losing part of
their land as a result of M4-highway. Section 3.
How many families in each household? Survey says 51% are living jointly with brothers etc
Survey also says average size is 6.7 in Shorkot and 7 in Khanewal
AIIB in its website says 3,429 households or 23, 186 displaced persons
Resettlement Plan vs IR requirements
Screening of the project
Accomplished but with data gaps on displaced households vis a vis vs displaced persons & # of families in a displaced household
No adequate discussion on women’s access to water and forest resources property rights, and views on resettlement functions
No recogni.on of the existence of nomadic and ethnic minori.es. Absence of legal definition of IPs in Pakistan could have paved the way for violations on IP rights
No recogni.on of children in vulnerable groups
Carry out meaningful consultations. Low participation of women in consultations , 80 women vs 500 men
No documentation if vulnerable groups were consulted those who were accessing agri lands
Grievance mechanism station is inaccessible: Faisalabad , 3.5 hours from Khanewal and 2.5 hours from Shorkot
Improve, or at least restore, the livelihoods of all displaced persons and provide adequate assistance
DP will be given market value of land, and livelihood allowance for 3 months only. No other proposed interventions on other than potential priority for employment in nearby factories
Transitionary allowance was only given for 3 months, not enough to restore income and given the length of interruption period.
Business owners were not provided with the costs of reestablishing commercial activities elsewhere; the costs of reinstalling plant, machinery, or other equipment at full replacement cost only a transi.onary allowance for 6 months
Vulnerability allowance beneficiaries includes employees, female-headed household, disabled and residents but no children and ethnic minorities
Develop grievance mechanism
Inappropriate disbursement method. Team announces a day before the actual disbursement which may leave AH unavailable in such a short period of .me. Only 39% of payments in Khanewal district
Make a rese]lement plan
Self-relocation was the option chosen by DPs.
(see pages 72-79, Rese]lement Plan PAK: National Motorway M-4 Gojra–Shorkot– Khanewal Section Project – Additional Financing ADB Project Document. December 2015)
Caveats on country systems for vulnerable populations
Women have rights to land granted to them by cons.tu.onal, statutory, and religious law but are under pressure of customary law and traditional prac.ce (Sharia law). In tribal areas local Jirgas decide on land disputes and often discriminate against women and their right to land ownership.
Absence of law on IP. Constitution speaks only of ethnic groups in reference to religion
Land Administration Act 1894 is old, institutions on land disputes are marred with corruption and feudal relations. Both at local government (tehsil) level and federal level, courts dealing with land disputes suffer from a back-log of cases, are poorly trained, and subject to corruption.
Information and Grievance
• Heaviily militarized, freedom of speech is limited with shrinking space for CSOs
• In other M4 sec.ons, due diligence report on resettlement says grievance mechnaism were present but not documented for follow through or further negotiation.
Country system vis a vis SPS on IR
Other caveats in safeguard processes: M4 Highway (Shorkot- Khanewal, Sec 3)
Environment was seen as separate components and not having interrelated impacts in the ecosystem ex soil pollu.on on agricultural produc.vity,, road debris and its impacts on surface and ground water, aquatic life, irriga.on etc.
No evalua.on on the impacts of cufng down of 91,000 trees on agricultural produc.vity, climate health, flaura and fauna
No adequate assessment of con.nuous or intergenerational impacts on ecosystems and agricultural produc.vity, health, and is basically limited to the impacts on the construc.on phase itself
No evalua.on on the impact of urbanization with the introduc.on of roads, tourists, business etc.
The continuous impacts on fauna has not been evaluated properly
Roads are number one killer in animals especially of migratory species like amphibians
Pollution from road debris can also alter the lifecycle of animals nearby, noise pollu.on can affect the behavior of birds
Caveats in safeguard processes: experiences in other M4 sections
Weak gender lens:
Lack of study on ow the project will affect economic ac.vi.es, water and forest access and so forth.
Gender par.cipa.on is weak especially on low income groups Public consultaDons and Grievance mechanisms
Most of the documented consulta.ons were with government officials and some affected establishments, low women’s par.cipa.on, no men.on of par.cipa.on from castes, lower income groups.
Mechanisms exist but documenta.on of grievances are very poor. - Final arbiter are lodged in problema.c institutions
Country Technical Notes on Indigenous Peoples Issues. Islamic Republic of Pakistan. Wasim Wagha. Interna.onal Fund for Agricultural Development November 2012.
China’s New Silk Road, Boom or Dust for Pakistan? AFP. Nov. 15, 2015.
Gender Checklist Reseilement. ADB. February 2003. M4 Highway Khanewal-Multan
One Belt One Road? China Pakistan Economic Corridor in Perpec.ve. Ins.tute of South Asian Studies, Na.onal University of Singapore. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=N3znMThX67s
PM orders provinces to fix sugarcane price at Rs180/40kg. The Na.on. Nov. 22, 2015 http://na.on.com.pk/na.onal/22-Nov-2015/pm-orders-provinces-to-fix-sugarcane-price-at-rs180-40kg
National Motorway M-4 Gojra–Shorkot– Khanewal Sec.on Project - Additional Financing: Environmental Impact Assessment, March 2015
National Motorway M-4 Gojra-Shorkot Sec.on Project - Additional Financing: Sec.on III Shorkot-Khanewal Reseilement Plan, ADB. December 2015
National Motorway M-4 Gojra–Shorkot Sec.on Project: Due Diligence Report on Resettlement. ADB. Mar 2016
National Motorway M-4 Gojra-Shorkot Sec.on Project: Faisalabad- Khanewal Motorway - Updated Environmental Impact Assessment. ADB. August 2015
Land Rights for Muslim Women: Review of Law and Policy. Women’s Land Rights. sustainable Development Policy Institute. ADB. July 2008.
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