M4 Gojra– Shorkot– Khanewal Project

Updated: Jan 12, 2019


*ADB-AIIB-DFID PROJECT IN PAKISTAN

Methodology

- Literature review

  • ADB Institutional and Project Documents

  • AIIB website

  • Published researches on indigenous peoples and women’s land right

  • Country briefers

  • News coverage– online and video uploads

- Email correspondence with CSOs in Pakistan

Financing


Corridor of Impact

Entire M4 highway is a 240 km road which will construct:

  • 15 interchanges, 23 flyovers/underpasses, 11 bridges, 19 underpasses, 191 pipe culverts , 55 WCC boxes and gas culverts .

  • M4 Shorkot-Khanewal (Section 3 of M4)

  • Two bridges will be constructed across 2 main surface water bodies which irrigates agri lands: River Ravi and Sadhnai Canal

  • Displacement of 3,429 households from the use of 1,616.7 acres of land of which 86 % is privately-owned agricultural land

  • Will require the cutting of 91,661 trees

Demographic profile and “missing people”

  • Covers 35 villages , no roads

  • 31 villages completed acquisi.ons / 4 villages are being processed under Land Acquisi.on Act of 1894

  • Displacing 3,429 households

  • Shorkot: Average household size is 6.9 Khanewal: Average household size is 7 Nuclear family (49%) , Joint (51%)

  • Women: men popula.on ratio is at 108:100

  • 70.2 percent uses wood, agri wastes for fuel source

  • Presence of castes (Sayyed, Naul, Supra, Sheikh, Haraj, Gill, Sanghara, Bandash, Mughal, Jai, Arain, Malik, Rajput, Sheikh )

  • Presence of ethnic minori.es such as Sialkot, Amratsar, Gurdaspur, Gujranwala, Gujra which should have triggered IP SP

  • No children counted under vulnerable groups

Demographic profile and “missing people”

Displaced person – any person whose land, asset/infrastructure , source of income or access to resources/workplace is likely to be affected is likely to be affected by the project’s opera.ons.In the COI, these are mostly land owners, business operators and owners of assets

However, there is huge gap in head count.

ADB says 3,429 households or 6,036 displaced persons losing part of

their land as a result of M4-highway. Section 3.

  • How many families in each household? Survey says 51% are living jointly with brothers etc

  • Survey also says average size is 6.7 in Shorkot and 7 in Khanewal

  • AIIB in its website says 3,429 households or 23, 186 displaced persons


Resettlement Plan vs IR requirements

Screening of the project

  • Accomplished but with data gaps on displaced households vis a vis vs displaced persons & # of families in a displaced household

  • No adequate discussion on women’s access to water and forest resources property rights, and views on resettlement functions

  • No recogni.on of the existence of nomadic and ethnic minori.es. Absence of legal definition of IPs in Pakistan could have paved the way for violations on IP rights

  • No recogni.on of children in vulnerable groups

  • Carry out meaningful consultations. Low participation of women in consultations , 80 women vs 500 men

  • No documentation if vulnerable groups were consulted those who were accessing agri lands

  • Grievance mechanism station is inaccessible: Faisalabad , 3.5 hours from Khanewal and 2.5 hours from Shorkot

  • Improve, or at least restore, the livelihoods of all displaced persons and provide adequate assistance

  • DP will be given market value of land, and livelihood allowance for 3 months only. No other proposed interventions on other than potential priority for employment in nearby factories

  • Transitionary allowance was only given for 3 months, not enough to restore income and given the length of interruption period.

  • Business owners were not provided with the costs of reestablishing commercial activities elsewhere; the costs of reinstalling plant, machinery, or other equipment at full replacement cost only a transi.onary allowance for 6 months

  • Vulnerability allowance beneficiaries includes employees, female-headed household, disabled and residents but no children and ethnic minorities

  • Develop grievance mechanism

  • Inappropriate disbursement method. Team announces a day before the actual disbursement which may leave AH unavailable in such a short period of .me. Only 39% of payments in Khanewal district

  • Make a rese]lement plan

  • Self-relocation was the option chosen by DPs.

(see pages 72-79, Rese]lement Plan PAK: National Motorway M-4 Gojra–Shorkot– Khanewal Section Project – Additional Financing ADB Project Document. December 2015)

Policy Environment

Caveats on country systems for vulnerable populations

  • Women have rights to land granted to them by cons.tu.onal, statutory, and religious law but are under pressure of customary law and traditional prac.ce (Sharia law). In tribal areas local Jirgas decide on land disputes and often discriminate against women and their right to land ownership.

  • Absence of law on IP. Constitution speaks only of ethnic groups in reference to religion

  • Land Administration Act 1894 is old, institutions on land disputes are marred with corruption and feudal relations. Both at local government (tehsil) level and federal level, courts dealing with land disputes suffer from a back-log of cases, are poorly trained, and subject to corruption.

Information and Grievance

• Heaviily militarized, freedom of speech is limited with shrinking space for CSOs

• In other M4 sec.ons, due diligence report on resettlement says grievance mechnaism were present but not documented for follow through or further negotiation.

Country system vis a vis SPS on IR



Other caveats in safeguard processes: M4 Highway (Shorkot- Khanewal, Sec 3)

EIA report

  • Environment was seen as separate components and not having interrelated impacts in the ecosystem ex soil pollu.on on agricultural produc.vity,, road debris and its impacts on surface and ground water, aquatic life, irriga.on etc.

  • No evalua.on on the impacts of cufng down of 91,000 trees on agricultural produc.vity, climate health, flaura and fauna

  • No adequate assessment of con.nuous or intergenerational impacts on ecosystems and agricultural produc.vity, health, and is basically limited to the impacts on the construc.on phase itself

  • No evalua.on on the impact of urbanization with the introduc.on of roads, tourists, business etc.

The continuous impacts on fauna has not been evaluated properly

  • Roads are number one killer in animals especially of migratory species like amphibians

  • Pollution from road debris can also alter the lifecycle of animals nearby, noise pollu.on can affect the behavior of birds

Caveats in safeguard processes: experiences in other M4 sections

Weak gender lens:

  • Lack of study on ow the project will affect economic ac.vi.es, water and forest access and so forth.

  • Gender par.cipa.on is weak especially on low income groups Public consultaDons and Grievance mechanisms

  • Most of the documented consulta.ons were with government officials and some affected establishments, low women’s par.cipa.on, no men.on of par.cipa.on from castes, lower income groups.

  • Mechanisms exist but documenta.on of grievances are very poor. - Final arbiter are lodged in problema.c institutions

Sources:

  • Country Technical Notes on Indigenous Peoples Issues. Islamic Republic of Pakistan. Wasim Wagha. Interna.onal Fund for Agricultural Development November 2012.

  • China’s New Silk Road, Boom or Dust for Pakistan? AFP. Nov. 15, 2015.

  • Gender Checklist Reseilement. ADB. February 2003. M4 Highway Khanewal-Multan

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jVzg2e_Owi

  • One Belt One Road? China Pakistan Economic Corridor in Perpec.ve. Ins.tute of South Asian Studies, Na.onal University of Singapore. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=N3znMThX67s

  • PM orders provinces to fix sugarcane price at Rs180/40kg. The Na.on. Nov. 22, 2015 http://na.on.com.pk/na.onal/22-Nov-2015/pm-orders-provinces-to-fix-sugarcane-price-at-rs180-40kg

  • National Motorway M-4 Gojra–Shorkot– Khanewal Sec.on Project - Additional Financing: Environmental Impact Assessment, March 2015

  • National Motorway M-4 Gojra-Shorkot Sec.on Project - Additional Financing: Sec.on III Shorkot-Khanewal Reseilement Plan, ADB. December 2015

  • National Motorway M-4 Gojra–Shorkot Sec.on Project: Due Diligence Report on Resettlement. ADB. Mar 2016

  • National Motorway M-4 Gojra-Shorkot Sec.on Project: Faisalabad- Khanewal Motorway - Updated Environmental Impact Assessment. ADB. August 2015

  • Land Rights for Muslim Women: Review of Law and Policy. Women’s Land Rights. sustainable Development Policy Institute. ADB. July 2008.

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